Author Guidelines

To submit an article for review please read through the below guidelines and only once these have been adhered to email the MS-Word document to:

Transformation was established in order to:

  1. provide an outlet for discussion and debate of forces that are shaping the South African and southern African societies, and debate the meanings of ‘transformation’;
  2. understand the potential for and obstacles in the way of transformation;
  3. particularly, consider – historically and currently – the class nature of these societies; political, cultural, and ideological dynamics;
  4. provide a platform for serious and critical debate, from a range of perspectives and disciplines.

These aims are taken into consideration when making editorial decisions, although we are primarily guided by the recommendations of two anonymous reviewers. The review process is of variable length but might take around three months.

Style guide
Note that copy editing is done by the members of the editorial board who do this work on a voluntary basis. Please take care to ensure that your submission, in particular the revised accepted submission, adhere to academic convention in general and the journal’s guidelines specifically so we can prepare your articles more efficiently and speedily. In general follow the style format in the most recent issue of the journal, especially for references (see

Please remove the author’s details from the articles submitted for review. Remember to check your header, footer, and the properties of the file.

Recommended lengths
Analytical Articles – 8000 words including all material
Debates, comment and review articles – 3000 words including all material
Please also prepare an abstract of up to 250 words.

Font and paragraph

Times New Roman, size 12, double spaced, default margins. Leave a line between each paragraph.


Please double check to ensure that all works cited appear in the reference list and vice versa.

In text
(note punctuation; indent all longer quotations – indentation then disposes of the need for quotation marks – except if quotation within quotation):


  • ‘blah blah blah’ (Davis 1974:43-45).
  • Davis was the first to direct us to ‘the notion of dreamworld’ (1974:485). This point was noted by other commentators as well (Christopher 1973, Cornell 1973, Samuels 2000).
  • As Davis said:

The world blah blah blah … dreamworld. (1974:23)

Page numbers are required for all quotes and references to specific claims, unless the source is not paginated.

Where multiple works are cited in a single list they should be ordered. Ordering can be either chronological or alphabetic but should be consistent throughout the article.

In reference list
(also note upper and lower case – lower case in article or chapter title; upper case in main title of book, but lower case for sub-title). Examples:

  • Davis, JL (1974) ‘The meaning of dreams: a case study of daydreams’, South African Labour Bulletin 21(1).
  • Davis, James, Claude Braverman and Cecile de Villiers (1976) ‘The benefits of walking: veld, vlei, and varkore’, in Veltie Froneman (ed) These Boots Were Made for Walking: striding southern Africa. Cape Town: Juta.

For double digit numbers in references in text use full number, eg 97-99. For treble digit numbers, use for example, 107-8 or 128-42 or 123-424. Page numbers of articles are not necessary in reference or bibliography section.

Of newspapers and magazines

  • In italics in brackets in text, and not in references at end of article, eg (Daily News, January 11, 1987; You, November 1956).
  • If the author uses full names of authors, stick to that in the references at end of article, eg Malik, Kenan (1996); Tobias, Phillip (1963).
  • Authors should reference full names or initials as appear in the sources. Transformation prefers full names throughout, if available.

Additional referencing notes

  • No idem, op cit.
  • Absolutely no et al in references (In text itself they are used for more than two authors).
  • All book, magazine, journal, newspaper titles (iow all published material or collections) in italics. Unpublished dissertations or theses not in italics, but with quotation marks.
  • Avoid ampersands throughout (eg Barns & Morris should be Barns and Morris).

July 14, 2000


  • ‘Do not let time take its toll’ – single quotation marks.
  • ‘Do not let time, as Darwin said, “;take its toll”;’. – (iow double for quotation within quotation, stop always after quotation marks and after references.)

Our typographical conventions

  • No italics for commonly used ‘foreign’ phrases such as et al.
  • No periods with ie, iow, etc, unless at end of sentence, eg etc.
  • Use per cent rather than percent or %. If %, then always numerals before, eg 9%, 24%.
  • Numbers from one to ten are written as words and from 11 onwards as numerals. If a number is at the start of a sentence then it would always be written as words.
  • Use commas to separate ‘thousands’ in numbers of a thousand and more. ie use 10,000,000 rather than 10000000 or 10 000 000.
  • Upper case should only be for proper nouns.
  • We prefer fewer sub headings without numbering. First level subsection headings are Times New Roman size 12 in bold, second level subsection headings are Times New Roman size 12 in italics (no bold). Both are lower case unless the first word or proper nouns. If heading numbering is deemed necessary use the following format: 1. Section title for first level and 1.1 Sub-section title for second level.

Diagrams, tables, graphs, photos
Graphs and figures should be embedded into the text at appropriate locations with captions. In addition, please upload figures as supplementary files at the point of submission to allow the layout person to modify as necessary. The format of captions is: bold, font size 12 Times New Roman, centred.

Please note that notes should be end-notes, and should be used very sparingly, and certainly not for general referencing (we acknowledge that with certain references, such as archival material, it is clearer and, therefore, necessary to place in notes).


Acknowledgements can be made in the first endnote which is linked to the article title.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission’s compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  4. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal. This is particularly important on resubmitting an accepted article.
  5. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the author’s name has been removed from the title page, headers and footers and from the properties of the file (Word 2003: Click File, Properties) (Word 2007: Click the Microsoft Office Button, point to Prepare, and then click Properties. Click on Document Information Panel)
Once you have completed the above please email the MS-Word document to

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.